The aim of this chapter is to present a quick pedagogical overview and to create an understanding of the activities in each of the four dimensions and the purpose of these.
The tools and activities are built on and inspired by research, principles, and methods from positive, vocational and humanistic psychology, cognitive principles, social cognitive behavioural systems, and entrepreneurial studies which mutually support each other in promoting the scope of this project.
In the following sections, you will find a short description of the activities from the dimensions:
The Self-Knowledge dimension
The concept of Self-knowledge corresponds to the personal system of the individual.
The Self-knowledge dimension consists of a range of activities aimed at supporting the participants in collecting, analysing, interpreting and using one’s personal information. This dimension will help the participant get a clear understanding of him or herself and create a stronger sense of identity.
This includes values, character strengths and skills.
Values are the beliefs that define what is most important to people. Personal life values influence one’s behaviour, decisions, choices, emotions, habits, lifestyle, and social experiences. Values are the motivators of people providing purpose and meaning. Focusing on one’s values enables the participants to set personal goals based on what is important for oneself.
The toolbox offers two activities to work with values:
- Exploration & Clarification of one’s values using the visual image cards
- A three steps activity using a narrative approach to identify and explore the personal values of the participant. Values related to the past, the present and the future.
- Values by self-assessment
- The aim of the ‘Wheel of life’ activity is to help the participants identify and select eight different domains of importance in their lives. The next step is to reflect and gain insight into personal values and perceived satisfaction in the different domains of life, in order to identify and understand the driving force of their values and their motivation. (Inspired by the theory of Basic Human Values. Schwartz (1992, 2006)).
A central element in the participants’ development of self-knowledge, insights and self-awareness is to help them identify what drives them, and what impedes them in exploiting their potential. The Character Strengths approach is based on the VIA Signature Strengths as described by Peterson & Seligman (2004).
The toolbox offers four strength-based approaches and activities.
Peterson & Seligman (2004) have developed a classification of central human strengths, which come from universal human virtues across culture, geography, and religion. The six universal virtues are Wisdom & Knowledge, Courage, Compassion & Love, Justice, Moderation & Transcendence, (Paterson & Seligman, 2004). According to Seligman (2004), the 24 strengths are the road to realising the virtues.
Peterson & Seligman (2004) define signature strengths as the strengths that are the most characteristic and recognisable for the individual, and the easiest to grasp in different situations because they are apparent and authentic for people.
Research and practice demonstrate that people actively working with their strengths thrive better, are more confident, and have higher self-esteem. Furthermore, they gain more energy and zest, experience less stress/are more resilient, perform better, are more committed, are better able to achieve their goals, develop faster, and achieve lasting improvements. (Source: Centre for Applied Positive Psychology, 2010)
Strengths are, to a greater extent, context related. According to researchers, by applying strengths in your daily life, you will become more effective when combined and developed in a dynamic synergy with the reality in which you interact. Furthermore, there is evidence for an increased effect when people use their signature strengths in new ways over a period of time (Seligman, Stern, Park & Peterson, 2005).
The toolbox offers different strategies to work with the strengths, and we recommend that you follow these three level steps: “Aware – Explore – Apply’. This approach to working with strengths will lead to a more optimal personal outcome.
Step one: (Aware) The VIA online strengths profile and the Strengths Image Cards ‘Solitaire’ activities identify and create awareness about one’s strengths.
Step two (Explore) Applying either the ‘Strengths Spotting Interview’ and or the ‘Image Card’ activity “Solitaire’ to explore one’s strengths even further and to approach different perspectives of one’s strengths.
Step three (Apply) Furthermore, link awareness to a goal in the future, indicating how the strengths can be applied in daily life.
The concept “self-efficacy’ and relevant elements from Albert Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory (Bandura, 1994; 1997) is applied when working with the participants’ development of Self-knowledge, World-knowledge, Decision-making and Transitional skills.
The concept of self-efficacy means:’ One’s belief in one’s abilities to perform or succeed at a certain level of performance or desired outcome that influences situations affecting one’s life’ (Bandura, 1994). Self-efficacy is important to explore when aiming to develop the participants’ beliefs in their own abilities to succeed, as the person is seen as an agent in his/her own life. People’s experienced self-efficacy affects, according to Bandura (1994), the way in which we think, feel, act, and motivate ourselves.
Bandura highlights that mastery experiences, together with Role Models and social persuasion, are vital sources of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1994). People’s self-efficacy can be trained through the influences of four different sources:
- Mastery experiences (also named success stories)
- Vicarious Experiences (role models, people similar to you)
- Verbal Persuasion (positive examples)
- Physiological Feedback (emotional arousal)
Mastery experiences (successes) are described as a driving force behind action (Kirketerp, 2012). The challenge behind the success needs to be within the individual’s Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky).
Within the dimension of Self-knowledge, the toolbox offers more activities to work on enhancing one’s self-efficacy:
- Strengths by Storytelling; applying the guiding question in the PARS MODEL to discover one’s personal competencies, experiences, and success stories.
- Finding success stories by storytelling in groups; applying the Strengths Spotting Interview.
The World Knowledge dimension
The concept of “world knowledge’ corresponds to the contextual systems in which the individual acts. This dimension consists of activities that allow the participants to examine their relationships within the close communities and the wider society. Working with these activities will help the participants collect, analyse, and interpret information about the opportunities available to them in their surroundings and how they can use this to achieve their goals.
The surrounding, social network relations and role models
Exploring the world (professional, training, and educational) is a fundamental step in ensuring that participants make decisions in a conscious and informed way, based on reliable and credible sources of information. This information also has to be related to participants’ knowledge of themselves (personal desires, interests, values, and expectation).
The activities dedicated to the dimension of world knowledge aims to support the participants in exploring (collecting, analysing and interpreting) the basic and fundamental information about the life and career objectives that they are considering.
People and the environment are always related, as human development is embedded in a larger social context. Including one’s social networks as a resource in change, processes can have great impact.
The facilitator can support and help the participant analysing their environmental relations and interaction in order for them to understand the complexity of, and opportunities for, the participants’ change.
One way to work with the social surroundings is by mapping one’s own social network and identifying role models in the networks and its surroundings.
The ‘role models’ are one of the other sources of self-efficacy. A role model has the ability to shape the views, ideals, and actions of a young person. Modelling and connecting with role models is a way of enhancing self-efficacy (Bandura, 1994). Role models can increase belief in one’s own performance and action by observing others who succeed. Support and encouragement from others are important in transition phases.
When people seek competent role models with competences that they themselves would like to acquire or strive to reach, it is important that the role model is someone that the participant can get in touch with or reach out to. (So, not a hero or famous person). To increase the success of the action, the participant should be able to model his or her behaviour on the role model, who can show the participant the possible next steps of action within the participant’s Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky). Knowledge or information about a skill or behaviour can be acquired by seeing them in the performance of others.
The toolbox offers the following activities to work directly with relations, role models, and network.
- Mapping one’s social network
- Identifying support and role models (source of self-efficacy)
The Transitional Skills Dimension
This dimension “Transitional skills’ refers to skills typically considered as not specifically related to a particular job, task, academic discipline or area of knowledge but as skills that can be used in a wide variety of situations and work settings (IBE, Unesco skills for work and life). These skills are increasingly in high demand for learners to successfully adapt to changes and to lead meaningful and productive lives.
- “Skill is the ability to perform tasks or cope with various situations effectively, in a particular context, and it is, therefore, necessary to mobilise attitudes, skills and knowledge, at the same time and interrelated’ (Zabala & Arnau, 2007),
- “Skill is an underlying characteristic of a person that results in effective and/or superior performance in a job’ (Zabala & Arnau, 2007),
- “The ability to perform a task in a particular context and transferring the knowledge underlying it to other contexts and tasks’ (Luís Imaginário, 1997).
Your skills are the most basic unity – the atoms – of any career you may choose. Be aware not to confuse skills with personality traits.
The toolbox offers the following activities to work with transitional skills:
- Learning positive emotions
- Learning the power of thoughts
- Challenging thoughts and beliefs
- Perceptions and tolerance to differences
- Time management
As humans, we tend to remember negative events more than positive events. “Bad is stronger than good “according to Roy F. Baumeister (2001). It is evolutionarily adaptive for “bad to be stronger than good’. An organism that was better attuned to bad events would have been more likely to survive threats. A person who ignores the possibility of a positive outcome may later experience significant regrets of having missed an opportunity for pleasure or advancement.
According to Lyubomirsky (2008), 10% of our joy in life (happiness) depends on external circumstances (the context in which we live), while 50% is genetic, which means that we have the “ability’ to influence the remaining 40%.
The ‘Broaden-and-Build’ Theory of Positive Emotions developed by Frederickson (2009) is the result of meticulous studies that show that one’s cognitive preparedness is expanded through positive emotions, whereby a person gets a bigger platform to build competence (Fredrickson 1998, 2001). It further explains that positive emotions expand cognition and behaviour tendencies and broaden the potential behavioural options.
The expanded cognitive flexibility, evident during positive emotional states, results in resource building that becomes useful over time. According to Frederickson (2009) “Upward spirals of positivity counter downward spirals of negativity’. One’s cognitive ability will broaden by exploring positive emotions and is the person’s foundation for building competence. The positivity ratio by Frederickson indicates a Tipping Point; for every negative emotion you need to experience 3 -11 positive emotions to experience well-being.
Positive emotions are according to Seligman (2012): Contentment, joy, satisfaction, clarification, hope, optimism, trust and belief (Seligman, 2002). Positive emotions are the foundation for good learning processes (Seligman, 2002).
According to Frederickson (2009) awareness of, and working with, positive emotions have an impact on humans’ resources:
- Physical – sleep quality, immunity from illnesses and diseases
- Social – expanded social connections, social support
- Intellectual – creativity, mindfulness
- Psychological – trait resilience, optimism
For a list of 10 of the most common positive emotions explained by Barbara Fredrickson (2009), you can look at the enclosed list in the supporting information sheet.
The toolbox offers different approaches to working with positive emotions:
- To create awareness of the positive emotion, you will find 2 group activities related to positive emotions designed for the classroom.
- One approach: The Positive emotion journal by writing: The activity “3 good things every day’ by focusing on the positive things occurring during the day. Write the events down in a notebook or in the handout for 14 days.
- Another approach: The positive emotion journal by collage’ which may work very well for participants with below average writing skills, is to do the exercise with the help of drawing or symbolism and using materials (pictures from magazine’s) to document 1-3 good things from the day.
As inspiration for training and enhancing the participants’ resilience, perseverance, and self-confidence, we include principles from the cognitive theories and methods (Beck 2011) and principles of cognitive coaching from Oestrich & Johansen (2006).
The Diamond model based on the cognitive methods
Emotions and behaviours are influenced by our perceptions of the events. It illustrates that it is not the situation in itself that determines what people think and feel; it is rather the way in which they think, construct and analyse the situation. The way we think determines how we feel and act. If we change the way we think, the way we feel will change as well, and we will be able to change the way we act. (Beck, 2011).
The cognitive method is about finding a balance between thoughts, feelings, body sensations, and behaviour. When there’s a discrepancy between thoughts and feelings, or we lose connection with our sensory apparatus, our behaviour becomes without goal and meaning – and in some situations, becomes destructive (Oestrich, 2006).
By becoming aware of thought processes or emotions and sensations, the participants can learn to influence thoughts and feelings – and thereby the implications of these – in a positive way.
To introduce the cognitive principles, the facilitator should first apply “The diamond’, followed by the activity “challenging thoughts and beliefs’ which is inspired by the ABCDE model and introduced by Seligman (2002). This explains the cognitive principles to the participants in an understandable and easily applicable way.
The Cognitive Diamond
The cognitive diamond is the first tool to be introduced to explain the relationship between thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and behaviour.
Furthermore, the facilitator will present the cognitive principles, “negative’ thoughts and related behaviour, and different levels of thinking (automatic thoughts, feelings and core beliefs (Beck, 2011).
In relation to Bandura’s sources of self-efficacy (Physiological feedback, emotional arousal), it is recommendable that the participants have been introduced to, and have worked with, positive emotions before working with “the diamond model’. This will create a better understanding of emotions in general.
Challenging your thoughts
According to Seligman (2002), the ABCDE model is a well-documented method that can be used to build optimism by recognising and challenging negative thoughts. When we have negative thoughts about ourselves, we rarely challenge them, even though they are often false.
The key to questioning the irrational’ thoughts about oneself is to acknowledge them and relate to them as if they were unjustifiably presented by another person (Seligman, 2002). The elements involved are:
- Activating Experience (the event or situation)
- Belief(s) (thoughts or interpretations of the event),
- Consequence(s) (upsetting emotional consequence of self-defeating belief; how you felt following the belief)
- Disputing self-defeating belief (challenging the self-defeating belief; consider another possibility; another way to interpret the belief),
- Effect of the consequence of disputing self-defeating belief (new emotional consequence as a result of challenging the self-defeating belief) has an energising effect and build optimism.
Using the model and the questions will challenge the participants’ beliefs, automatic thoughts, and interpretations that result in resistance. Thus, it will be possible to change the habits of negative thoughts to a more realistic and constructive explanation style.
The activities ‘The Diamond’ and ‘Challenging your Thoughts’ acquired and applied by participants will be useful to them when they face challenges or find themselves in stressful situations.
The toolbox offers to work directly with changing behaviour and perspective in the following activities:
Activity 14 Learning the power of thoughts
- The Diamond
- Challenge your Thoughts – changing behaviour
- Changeable questions
- Pros and cons: Decision-making Balance
- Time Management
- The time management aspect of the toolbox intends to assist participants in acquiring the ability to plan and control how they spend their time in order to achieve their goals. This includes abilities such as:
- planning for the future
- avoiding procrastination
- and prioritising tasks.
The Decision-making Dimension
Goal Setting and Goal Management
According to Bandura (1994), people can motivate themselves by setting goals for future actions and envisaging preferable scenarios. It is important, however, that these goals are clear and achievable if they are to be satisfactory and strengthen people’s faith in their ability to act.
Effective goal systems are organized hierarchically, where the closest milestones regulate the motivation and the actions that are necessary to reach the overall goals. According to Bandura, this is the reason why it is particularly important for humans, with little belief in their own self-efficacy, to set achievable goals that can give them a sense of movement in the right direction. Furthermore, in order for goals to have an effect, it is important that the individual feels obligated and motivated by the goals (Bandura, 1994).
Enterprising action will become manageable and possible if people “always’ deal with the ‘next best action’ through small steps of full control. This idea is derived from entrepreneurial studies by Sarasvathy (2012) who has researched different approaches of thinking about the future, respectively called “causation’, i.e. “goal-oriented thinking’, and “effectuation,’’ i.e. means- controlled thinking.
According to Sarasvathy, the research on means-controlled processes indicates that an entrepreneur’s starting point consists of three types of means which have been incorporated in the final dimension of the toolbox. The Toolbox proposes different dimensions for the use of the respective tools to help participants locate resources for working with goal setting. These include:
- Who you are, i.e. characteristics and preferences (activities from the Self-knowledge dimension)
- What you know, i.e. competencies and experience: Strengths by storytelling PARS Model and competence three ( world knowledge dimension)
- Who you know, i.e. social and professional network. ‘Mapping network relations activity’ and ‘identifying role ’
Research suggests that becoming aware, exploring, and applying your strengths are important sources of intrinsic motivation (Seligman, 2002) and (Linley, 2008).
The following general tools for anchoring goals and making them “SMARTE’ can be applied to complete the goal setting:
- The SMARTE Model to make the goal: Specific, Measurable, Attractive, Realistic, Time-focused and Effective
- Anchoring your goal and Action
- Decision-making balance
Before applying the toolbox activities, we recommend that you read the pedagogical chapter and the content of activities to get an overview of the opportunities of the programme in its totality. Furthermore, the Workshop Facilitators’ Guide provides you with further information about adult learning principles and methods.
The activities are listed in chronological order, indicating a full Live2Work programme.
The toolbox activities are designed mainly to be adapted to group activities. But can be applied to individual programmes (one advisor and one participant).
The toolbox provides a range of activities group in each dimension. Each activity is accompanied by:
- A technical sheet for the facilitator
Activity introduction with brief information about the dimension, duration of the activity, group-size, the aim of the activity, methodology, a step-by-step instruction, and suggestions and links to discover more about the theories from each specific activity.
- A supporting information sheet
This sheet serves as background information, to help the facilitator learn more about the activity, and the content or the theory of the activity. Working with diversity among a group of participants, this sheet also can serve as activity support information handout for participants that are able to work independently with the exercise. This could apply for participants without language barriers. The supporting information sheet can be used as a tool to assist the more advanced participants in moving forward independently with a task, or for self-study.
- A handout for participants
A brief introduction to the purpose of the activity and the exercise, and a step-by-step description of how to apply the exercise (ready to print).
- Training resources
Some activities provide ready to use and printable teaching material such as printable Value image cards and Character Strengths Cards.
- Keep in mind: The dimensions ‘Self-knowledge’ and ‘World knowledge’ can be followed up by the Sum-up activity allowing to summarising learnings from each dimension in one poster. The dimension “Transitional skills’ are to be followed up by “My-Global project overview allowing the participants to summarise all programme learnings in one global poster.
Working with the toolbox activities
The toolbox holds a collection of mutually reinforcing activities, which can be used separately or combined in training programmes.
A full Live2Work programme offers a total of 21 activities including subactivities.
Whether you choose to apply the entire selection of activities or only wish to work with one or a few of the activities, always start with the pre-activity tool “Individual Contract’. This activity is necessary as it helps the participants to define their goals, level of commitment, and expectations of the programme. If you are working with groups, the next step is to apply the activity “Group Contract’.
When working with these pre-activities, the facilitator should take the opportunity to clarify the resources of the entire group and get an overview of how to put together the most suitable effective sub-groups.
To maximise the output of the activities, each activity should be followed up by using the Goal setting activity and the action plan to anchor the goals.
Applying the Wrap-up activity to finalise each activity will stimulate commitment and knowledge sharing in the group, which is an important step for the repetition of one’s learnings and goals.
Working with any given activity from the toolbox
To structure a session or a workshop applying one activity. For example, Clarification of Values:
- Start by applying the pre-activity: “Individual Contract’ and “Group Contract’ to prepare the participant for the activity and create mutual understanding and expectation of the goal of the session.
- Follow up with the activity, within the dimension of Self-knowledge: Value Exploration and Clarification: “Values by cards’.
- To finalise and anchor the learning and reflection of the activity, apply Goal setting and action plan from the ‘Decision making’ dimension’.
- Wrap up the activity: Having the participants share 1-3 of their most important learnings from the workshop and 1-3 goals or actions they wish to apply.
- When working with all the activities in the three different dimensions: ‘Self-knowledge’, World knowledge’ or ‘Transitional skills’ use the same structure as listed above.
To finalise and wrap up one dimension in its entirety, apply the activity ‘Sum up’ activity from the wrap-up tools section.
The target group – the participants
The toolbox has been developed to cater to the needs of professionals working with young adults in situations of professional vulnerability, also encompassing migrants and refugees. The shared similarities between this target group is that they, due to a lack of soft skills, are not able to meet labour market requirements. To help this group of people meet these needs, the focal point of the toolbox is on the development of the soft skills needed to thrive in the 21st-century European workforce.
It is a reality for most professionals involved in assisting the vulnerable and unemployed people in becoming self-reliant. The target groups come from different backgrounds, each with their own specific challenges. When working with such a heterogeneous group, with fluctuating levels of competences and skills, it is not always possible to use one recipe for success. For example, some participants can have limited language abilities (i.e. refugees), illiteracy problems due to early school leaving, a lack of academic, personal and/or social resources necessary to work independently or handle abstract thoughts on their own.
For this reason, the facilitator needs to consider the different strategies and approaches necessary for the individual to reach the expected objectives and goals of the programme. This means that the facilitator must differentiate the teaching and facilitation of the activities according to the specific needs of the individuals.
Length of the Live2work programme
As the facilitator running the Live2Work programme (without any other activities, e.g. skill training for young adults, vocational and educational training, or other interventional programme for unemployed, language training or other related courses), it is recommended that you apply one to three activities per week for a period of 7-10 weeks. This will provide time for the participants to reflect and work with the activity in between the sessions or workshops, to increase the learning outcome of the programme.
Depending on the competence levels of the group, we suggest that each activity is followed up by feedback sessions, with input from the participants, on how they have experienced working with the activity, in order to ensure everyone is on the right track.
The duration of each activity is indicated in the technical sheet. The estimated time to carry out the activity will depend on how advanced the participants are and the general learning levels of the group, e.g. according to diversity, competence level, and language skills of the group members.
For participants with a lack of national language skills (migrants and refugees), we suggest that the facilitator places emphasis on working with visual tools, e.g. image cards, strengths cards and storytelling.
The toolbox offers different approaches to working with the activities. Some activities are supporting the visual learning style through the use of pictures/images.
The facilitator should target the language levels of the person or group that he/she works with. To maximise the participants’ learning and outcome, the facilitator can split the participants into groups and appoint one or two persons, speaking the national language and with translation competencies, as facilitating assistants to guide the group members or fellow participants through the activities. The main aim is to maximise learning from the activity – not the national languages.
In groups with high degrees of language diversity, the duration of the activity might differ from the time stated in the technical sheet.
Resources needed to complete the activities in the programme
Live2Work provides, suggestions and recommendations regarding:
End-users as the facilitator
The programme should be facilitated by a facilitator/teacher with a group size of approximately 8-12 participants, depending on the diversity, the level of vulnerability and the learning level of the participants. Working with groups, every session and activity must be introduced, guided, and followed up by the facilitator.
Resources needed to run the workshops
Colour Printer: It is recommended to print out all handouts, as these serve as guiding support tools for the participants. Regarding the activities ’working with the strengths and values cards’ it is mandatory to print the material in colour, to gain the optimal visual effect. Print one set of “strengths cards’ for each participant. If you have the resources, you can enhance the quality of the image cards by laminating them. If your employer allows other printable versions, use a professional printer.
Optional: Images from magazines containing value related images could be used instead of the value cards. Other material can be relevant to collect for some of the activities such as working with, e.g. time management. Review the technical sheet for ideas on what to prepare ahead of a session or workshop.
Room: A classroom, with big post-its or tape to stick the big posters on the wall, markers to write on the posters or a black/whiteboard.
Projector: Use a projector to present different images
Notebook or white paper: It is advisable that the participants receive a notebook to write and draw their reflections in and a folder to save all the handouts and exercises in.
The toolbox training emphasises that the theoretical knowledge is put into practice through presentations, discussions, and practical exercises by testing the tools in the ‘classroom’.
A prerequisite for learning is that participants are actively involved in the training. The facilitator should involve the participants – for example, by having them share their experiences related to the specific dimensions and topics. The facilitator should provide a ‘learning room’ for exploration and experimental behaviour, as these elements promote learning through different methods such as; group dialogue, self-reflection, group work, selected games or role-playing.
The facilitator should initiate learning by, for example, using specific challenges from the participants’ daily lives, and encouraging them to engage in ‘homework’ between each training session allowing them to test their learnings and reflections in practice. Please go the facilitators guide to learn more how to apply cases when teaching and facilitation.
The didactical frame and strategies for interventions in the Live2Work toolbox are inspired by the ‘SKUB-method’ – in English PUSH, (Kirketerp; 2012). This method is according to Kirketerp a method that supports, trains, and stimulates enterprising action in other to create a learning and teaching culture that promotes the participants’ ability to act on their knowledge in a way that creates value to oneself and others. The method (model) points out seven empirically and theoretically based strategies and describes a change process from having a thought to forming a visualisation of acting on the basis of these thoughts. The “push” in this process, consists of applying seven strategies to create stimulate an enterprising action.
According to Kirketerp, when a facilitator successfully, through training and teaching the Push method’s strategies, helps others to convert thoughts into action, then enterprise can be stimulated. The most important strategy for change is according to Kirketerp, learning the master experiences.
The seven strategies in the model are: Master experiences, means to the goal, Insight and reflection, the Courage to fail, Changing of habits, Role model, and Reward for action.
Inspired by the “Push Method” as a didactical frame, the practical experience and professional knowledge and experience working with the target groups for this project, the Soft Skill development model is developed and designed to illustrate the tools and activities that are important to apply for the development of the various soft skills defined in each dimension ‘self-knowledge’, ‘world-knowledge’, ‘Transitional skills’ and ‘Decision Making’.
The soft skills model is an operational approach and dynamic model where the different activities are interrelated, mutually supplemented, and affect each other. With the aim of creating the positive and beneficial transition for the participants.
Diagram – development of soft skills model
The activities and the interventions in this toolbox, which have been developed for practitioners, are based on and inspired by, research within cognitive methods, vocational- and positive psychology, and empirical entrepreneurship studies and practice.
 Positive psychology is the study of the conditions and processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of people, groups, and institutions (Gable & Haidt, 2005). The aim of positive psychology is to develop the field of psychology and to supplement the existing understanding and methods with the new knowledge and methodologies.